The Battle of the Shirts 1544

The Battle of the Shirts (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr na Léine, also the Battle of Kinloch-Lochy) was a Scottish clan battle that took place in 1544 in the Great Glen, at the northern end of Loch Lochy. The Clan Donald and their allies the Clan Cameron fought the Clan Fraser and men from Clan Grant. The battlefield has been included and protected by Historic Scotland in their Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland. 
The setback of the 1540s occurred under the chieftainship of Hugh, 5th Lord Fraser,who made the mistake of championing the cause of his nephew, Ranald Galda, one of the claimants to the chieftainship of Clanranald Macdonald. The Clanranald itself preferred the illegitimate son of the previous chief and declared war on Hugh Fraser when he tried to impose Ranald Galda upon them.
Clan tradition of the clans involved and all histories written since the period have stated that the name was derived from the fact that the day was so hot that both sides threw off their plaids, fighting in their shirts. However, some have postulated in recent times that Blàr na Léine is a corruption of Blàr na Lèana 'the Field of the Swampy Meadow'. 

Background
The chiefship of the Clan Macdonald of Clanranald was in dispute. Hugh Fraser the Lord Lovat, chief of Clan Fraser of Lovat, was the uncle of one of the warring claimants, Ranald Galda (the stranger), whose cause he supported. Lovat with over four hundred of his best men joined up with the Earl of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon, who was the Lieutenant of the North. They intended to crush the MacDonalds and make Ranald the chief. The combined Fraser and Gordon force marched to Inverlochy, in Lochaber and they successfully established Ranald's control over Moidart by taking Castle Tioram. 

The Battle
The Earl of Huntly decided to split his forces from the Frasers and returned to his own territory. The expedition being cut short, Fraser, Lord Lovat led his men up the Great Glen towards Glenmoriston. This decision to divide their forces for their return journey might indicate that Lovat and Huntly thought that the MacDonalds were no longer a threat. 
The MacDonalds had been stalking the invaders but had held back because they were numerically inferior. However with Huntly's men gone, the MacDonalds moved swiftly to outflank Lovat, falling upon the unsuspecting Frasers on an area of wild marshland to the north of Loch Lochy. The battle became known as Blar-ne-leine which means the field of the shirts because the heat of the day caused the Highlanders to take off their heavy plaids and fight in their shirts. (This translation is however disputed by modern scholars who assert that it really refers to the marshy ground). 
Lovat and his Frasers were outnumbered but he could have fought a rearguard action to cover his escape. Instead Lovat led his men into a pitched battle. Lovat was killed along with his son and heir, and hundreds of men with the victory falling to the MacDonalds. 
Many legends surround this skirmish. According to one, 300 Frasers fought with 500 MacDonalds and at the end only 3 Frasers and 8 MacDonalds were left alive. Certainly at least 200 Frasers died, including the Chief and his heir, a huge loss to the clan. 

Another story is that the fighting was so fierce that men lying on the ground with limbs hacked off, still struggled to cut at their enemies’ feet as the fight raged on above them, while others took to underwater warfare, as the battle spilled over into the loch. The most unlikely tale of all is that the clan’s survival was insured, when the wives of 80 of the 200 men killed, proved to be pregnant after the battle and brought forth 80 male replacements in due season.

Aftermath
Lovat and his son were later buried at Beauly Priory. For the most part the Earl of Huntly focused his attention in other parts of Scotland thereafter, as a result of which John MacDonald, Cameron of Lochiel, and the chiefs of Glengarry, Keppoch and Glencoe were free to spend the month of April 1545 sacking the regions near Urquhart Castle, destroying what they did not take. Parliament attempted to summon John to answer accusations of treason several times beginning in September, but John did not respond. No records suggest that Parliament ever successfully called to account the Captain of Clanranald, who finally died unrepentant in 1584. 
But perhaps the most significant story concerns the alleged treachery of Lady Fraser, who is said by some to have arranged the whole ambush with the MacDonalds in order to rid herself of her husband. Certainly there is a strong belief that she caused the death of her stepson, the heir to the chieftainship, who had not gone with his father on the campaign, but rode off on the morning of the battle, after his stepmother accused him of being a coward. Whether any of this is true or not, the dowager Lady Fraser was certainly a dominant figure in the clan for the next 20 years, both in her own right and through her son, who now became Chief.

Allan Duncan Fraser (18th September 1902 - 12th December 1977)

Allan Duncan Fraser CMG (18 September 1902 – 12 December 1977) was an Australian politician and journalist.
Fraser was born in the Melbourne suburb of Carlton and brought up in Tasmania. He left State High School, Hobart at 17 to become a journalist on the Hobart Mercury. He worked for the Argus in Melbourne from 1922 to 1929 when he moved to Canberra to work for The Sun. He married Eda Kathleen Bourke in 1931. In 1933, he worked for The Times in London, before returning to Australia to work for the Sun and the Sydney Daily Telegraph, but was sacked in 1938. Bob Heffron, the leader of the Industrial Labor Party, which had broken from the New South Wales branch of the Australian Labor Party led by Jack Lang, appointed him as his secretary. He acted as Heffron's media officer and helped formulate the strategy that overcame Lang's control of the branch. He subsequently worked as news editor on the Daily News and then returned to the Canberra parliamentary press gallery in 1940 as political correspondent for Ezra Norton's Truth and from 1941 Norton's new Daily Mirror.
Fraser was active in the Australian Journalists Association and had been secretary, treasurer and president of its Victorian district between 1926 and 1929 and treasurer of the New South Wales district from 1937 to 1938. Between 1941 and 1944 he was president of the Canberra sub-district of the AJA.
In 1943, Fraser beat Jessie Street for Labor preselection for Eden-Monaro. He entered federal parliament at the 1943 election, which gave John Curtin's ALP government a large majority.
Fraser tended to be independent and at times critical of his party. In particular, he condemned H. V. Evatt in relation to his handling of the Industrial Groups and the 1954 Labor Party split (although he himself was no Grouper). After Labor's defeat in 1955 Fraser stood against Evatt for the leadership, but lost 58 to 20 and lost his high ranking in caucus' executive. He later became increasingly interested in foreign affairs and was particularly critical of Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War. In the 1966 election Labor's opposition to the war led to its being vanquished in a landslide, and Fraser lost his seat. He regained it in 1969, when the war had become less popular and a strong swing to the ALP occurred; but he retired at the 1972 election, when the Whitlam government came to power.
In 1974, Fraser won a seat as an independent in the original Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly and was, in consequence, expelled from the Labor Party. He died in Canberra and was survived by his wife and son. His brother, Jim Fraser, was MP for the adjoining seat of Australian Capital Territory from 1951 to 1970.
He was a made a Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1977.

The Battle of Culloden

The battle took place on April 16, 1746 and marked the end of Prince Charles Stuart's Jacobite uprising. Highland forces and their allies were routed by forces of the British Government under the command of the notorious Duke of Cumberland.
Between 1500 and 2000 Jacobites died on the battlefield, with 50 Government troops killed. Jacobite losses were so high because Cumberland ordered the slaughter of all wounded Jacobites after the battle was over. 
The aftermath of the battle began a series of assaults on the clan system and all aspects of Highland/Gaelic culture that is still being felt to this day.
Pictured is the stone marking the grave of the many clansmen who died on Culloden Moor

Captain Fraser's Folly

The Uig Tower, also known as Captain Fraser's Folly, is a nineteenth century folly located in Uig on the island of Skye in the Highlands of Scotland. It is a category B listed building.
The Uig Tower stands along the A87, which connects Portree and Uig, about two kilometers south of Uig. The tower is positioned on the southeastern side of the bay on its southern headland opposite Rubha Idrigil.
Major William Fraser became the owner of the Kilmuir Estate in 1855 and the tower was constructed around 1860 at a place where the local tenants had to go to pay their rents to his Factor.
Fraser was, like many other landlords in Scotland, notorious for his contribution to the Highland Clearances, during which tenants were evicted so the land could become available for large-scale sheep farming. The folly is still associated by locals with the Clearances. Fraser lived in a large house called Uig Lodge, which was washed away in a flood in 1877 shortly after the conclusion of the clearances.
In 1884 Fraser attempted to evict a family at Garafad in Staffin during a rent strike. Fraser called for help from the Government to break the strike, claiming that the local people were in rebellion. In November 1884 a flotilla of naval ships arrived in Uig Bay and the police and marines took up positions in Uig. However, strike was not broken, the family remained in their home, and the police and military left shortly thereafter.
The tower was later turned into a family home, but this was abandoned in the 1950s.
The Uig Tower is a round tower of two floors and was built in Norman style. The tower has narrow vertical slits instead of windows. The gaps resemble loopholes of a castle which arrows could be fired on attackers, although it has no defensive function and was built purely as a show of wealth. On the outside, the gaps are decorated with cross shapes.
The tower is owned by the Uig Hotel.
    

Sir Simon the Patriot

Sir Simon Fraser of Oliver and Neidpath, Knight Banneret. Was born in 1246 in Peaseblesshire (now Tweeddale).
After setting up John Baliol (“Toom Tabard”) as his puppet King of Scotland, Edward I took over the rule of Scotland. Part of this takeover was the requirement of all Scots of note to sign a document swearing fealty to Edward 1. This remarkable document known as “The Ragman Roll” lists names redolent in Scottish history. There were fourteen Frasers, including Simon Fraser of Oliver. Many of the seals of the signatories are extant, although some have been lost. Some of the Fraser seals with the distinctive cinquefoils survive.
Simon Fraser of Oliver is known as the Patriot for good reason. Initially he was with Edward 1 and was in his army at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 and the siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300. However with the strengthening resistance of the Scots and the rise of the nationalist cause he changed sides. For a time he fought alongside Andrew Moray, and after that man's death, William Wallace, a distant kinsman. He led the Scottish victory at the Battle of Roslynn in 1303, alongside John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch (also known as "Red Comyn"), in which he defeated three different parts of the English army in one day, with just 8,000 men under his command. Consequently the English King, Edward I, marched north through Stirling taking Perth. As Edward approached Dunfermline, the Bishop of St Andrews and the bishop of Glasgow along with Red Comyn met his army and submitted. Simon refused to swear fealty to the English King and did not attend. This defiance would later lead to his execution.

​Simon Fraser became a thorn in the side of Edward and accompanied Wallace in some of his escapades. In one notable event in 1304, the pair of them engaged some English Knights at Happrew in Tweeddale a few miles west of Neidpath near Peebles.
​The location of the skirmish is important as it would appear that Neidpath was part of the Barony of Oliver Castle. What was on the site at this time is not known as the current Neidpath Castle was not constructed until the second half of the 14th century. But one presumes that there was probably some sort of fortification on the site available for refuge by Fraser etc. What we do know was on the site was a particular type of yew tree – taxus baccata neidpathensis - this had a stiff growth and had excellent wood for bows. What happened to the original yews is not known. The current yew trees which line the avenue at Neidpath and are taxus baccata neidpathensis were planted in 1654.


After the capture of Sir William Wallace and his barbaric death at the hands of Edward 1 in 1305, Simon Fraser joined King Robert the Bruce. At the battle of Methven against the English it is recorded that Fraser saved The Bruce’s life three times by his courageous actions. He escaped from the King's defeat at the Battle of Methven, but was captured in 1306 at a subsequent engagement at Kirkencliff near Stirling by Sir Thomas de Multon and Sir John Jose. Fraser was sent to London, and hanged, drawn and quartered on September 8, 1306. His head was impaled on a spike on London Bridge, as were those of his brother, John Fraser, and William Wallace.
There is a theory that Wallace was not the main leader of the Scottish Resistance. When John Moray died of his wounds after the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1296, Wallace was unable to win another battle, although his guerilla warfare was very effective. Sir Simon led the Scots at the triple Battle of Rosslyn, because Wallace did not feel confident enough to lead them after his defeat at Falkirk.

Lovat of the '45

In the introduction to his book, “Homelands of the Clans”, Gerald Warner makes the following statement: To those outside the clan system the famous Fraser chief, Simon, 11th Lord Lovat, was a ravisher, a turncoat and a traitor; to the Highlanders he was the ideal example of a Gaelic patriot. This was because he understood and adhered to the essential canon of clan morality, and gave it the most perfect expression in a famous remark, “There is nothing I place in the balance with my kindred.”
As a young man, in an effort to gain the title of Lord Lovat and chiefship of the clan, he forcibly married the young widow of the recently deceased Lord Lovat, and had his piper playing to drown her screams as he consumated the marriage. However when her relatives had the marriage annulled and Simon charged with rape, she refused to testify against him.
The clan preferred Simon to any “foreigner” and was willing to follow him. They proved this in 1715 when Simon returned home from exile in France and led them to defect to
the Government side after they had been “brought out” for the Stuarts by his rival, a Mackenzie styling himself “Fraser of Fraserdale”. Partly as a result of his intervention, the ’15 Rebellion was defeated. The charges against Simon were dropped and his position as 11th Lord Lovat was recognized.
In 1746, however he made the mistake of choosing the wrong side. At Culloden he was not fit enough to take the field himself, but he was held responsible for the actions of his clan, and although he made a brliiant defence at his trial, he paid the ultimate penalty.
He faced his execution with great courage and even humour. On the morning when he was to be beheaded he is said to have been in great pain with gout, but commented wryly that by afternoon it would be giving him no trouble. On the way to his execution, a woman thrust her head into the coach and cried out exultantly: “ They’re going to cut off your head, you ugly old Scotch dog!” To which he replied, apparently unperturbed, “I do believe you are right, you ugly old English bitch.” At the site of the execution outside the Tower of London he tipped the executioner generously, checked the blade of the axe, and calmly laid his head on the block.

The Frasers of Philorth - Lords Salthoun

​The Frasers of Philorth are descended from the Frasers of Touchfraser and trace their lines back to Sir Gilbert Fraser, Sheriff of Traquair and of Peebles. Through marriage with a co-heiress of the Earl of Ross, Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie and Durris acquired the Manor Place of Philorth in 1375. Now called Cairnbulg Castle, the home of the chiefs is located in Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire.
Sir Alex Fraser 8th of Philorth, was the founder of Fraserburgh, for which he obtained charters in 1588 and 1592. He also built Fraserburgh Castle at Kinnaird Head in 1570. He planned a university for the town, and obtained a charter to that effect from the King. However the powers behind Aberdeen out manouvered him and established a university there first. His struggles to establish the University of Fraserburgh were too much, and by the time he died in 1623 he was heavily in debt.
William Fraser, 9th Baron Saltoun, spent most of his life trying to overcome the debts he had inherited, and despite numerous setbacks, he eventually succeeded in redeeming the estates from his creditors. His plans in this direction looked rosy when he was offered the hand of the heiress to the recently deceased Lord Lovat (35th MacShimidh).
This would have consolidated the two main houses of the Fraser name and given William access to sufficient funds to clear all his debts. However he was kidnapped by the notorious Simon Fraser (who later secured for himself the title of Lord Lovat) and imprisoned until he agreed to give up his suit, intimidated no doubt by the huge gallows Simon had built outside the window of his cell. In another attempt to raise funds, he supported the Darien Scheme, but despite the opportunities offered for profit, he opposed the Treaty of Union.
In 1669, Alexander Fraser, 10th of Philorth acquired the title of 10th Lord Saltoun through his mother whose ancestors were the Abernethys who held the title from 1230. Being the senior line of the Fraser family, the Saltouns are chiefs of the name Fraser.
Possibly the greatest Baron Saltoun was the 16th, Alexander George Fraser. As a General in the Grenadine Guards he saw action in the Battles of Corunna, Vittoria, Pyranees, Bidasson, Nivelle, Nive and Bayonne. Against Napoleon, he took part in the Battle of Quatre Bras, and at Waterloo, he held the Garden at Hougoumont, where the fighting was heaviest. During this battle he had four horses killed under him. Honours he received included C.B, Knight of the Orders of Maria Theresa of Austria and St George of Russia. He was later awarded the K.C.B. In 1837 he was appointed to Major General and fought in the Opium Wars in China, later becoming Officer-in-Charge of the entire British Forces in China. Further promotion to Lieutenant- General came his way in 1849 four years before his death at the age of 68.
Alexander Arthur Fraser, 19th of Philorth died peacefully on August 31,1979 at the age of 93, after a noteworthy career of service to his country and his home community of Buchan. This service included leading the 1st Battalion, the Gordon Highlanders during World War 1 (for which he won the Military Cross), welfare work for returning soldiers through the Fraserburgh Branch of the British Legion, Representative Peer for Scotland in the House of Lords from 1935 to 1963, Grand Master Mason for Scotland for two years and Convenor of the Scottish Lifeboat Council for many years.

​The Rt. Hon. The Lady Saltoun, 20th of Philorth is the present holder of the title , and a perfect lady in every sense of the word


Although she devotes much of her time to the House of Lords, the Royal National Lifeboat Institution an St Peter’s Episcopal Church in Fraserburgh she still finds time to write a number of books, maintain her garden an actively pursue her responsibilities as Chief of all Frasers. Her Coat of Arms includes two crests. The family crest of Philorth is an Ostrich with a horseshoe in its beak and the motto “In God is all”. As the head of the Frasers she also the crest of a strawberry plant on a mound with the motto ”All my hope is in God” Cadet families of the Saltoun family are the Frasers of Drumelizer, Frendraught, Makarstoun, Oliver Castle and Tulifour. Cadets of the family of Cowie, Durris and Philorth are the Frasers of Ardendracht, Broadland, Durris, Forest, Forglen, Fraserfield, Hospitalfield, Lonmay, Memsie, Park, Quarrelbuss, Rathillock, Techmuiry and Tyrie. The Frasers of Findrack claim to be descended from the Frasers of Durris.
Further information about the Frasers of Saltoun can be obtained from the book “The Chief Is a Lady”, by William F. Rannie, published in Lincoln, Ontario, Canada, in 1980. Also Lady Saltoun’s book “Clan Fraser” published in 1997 by Scottish Cultural Press of Edinburgh

Helen Miller Fraser (14 September 1881 - 2nd December 1979

Helen Miller Fraser, later Helen Moyes (14 September 1881 – 2 December 1979) was a Scottish suffragist, feminist, educationalist and Liberal Party politician who later moved to Australia.
Fraser was born in Leeds, Yorkshire to Scottish parents. She was educated at Higher Grade School, Queen's Park, Glasgow. She opened a studio in Glasgow that specialised in black and white illustration work and embroidery.
She joined the Women's Social and Political Union [WSPU] after hearing Teresa Billington speak in Glasgow. She travelled to England to help the WSPU campaign at the Huddersfield by-election, 1906. She became Treasurer of the Glasgow WSPU and a WSPU Scottish Organiser. In 1907 she organised the WSPU campaign during the Aberdeen South by-election, 1907 during which she met Adela Pankhurst with whom she remained close friends throughout her life. She also took a prominent role in the WSPU's Hexham by-election, 1907 campaign for which she was praised by the Daily Mail. By 1908 she was becoming disillusioned with the violent militant tactics of the WSPU. She criticised the actions of one WSPU member who broke the windows of the Prime Minister H. H. Asquith. She resigned from the WSPU soon after and was approached by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies [NUWSS] and agreed to work for them. She was a member of the NUWSS national executive committee for 14 years.

​​Fraser was effective as a public speaker and had speaking engagements not just in Scotland, but all around Britain.
​In a one-year period (1908–09) her meetings collected a total of £56.19.10 for the NUWSS.

In 1912 she spoke at a meeting in Cambridge organised by the Cambridge Women's Suffrage Association, held during a course of University Extension Lectures. In 1915 she acted as temporary Honorary Secretary of the Penarth Women's Suffrage Society.
During the Great War she worked as a Commissioner for the National War Saving Committee. She was seconded to the Board of Agriculture to persuade women to work on the land. In 1917 at the suggestion of Millicent Fawcett she was included by the British Government as part of the official British War Mission to the US,[4] to speak about Britain's war effort. She travelled through 40 states and spoke 332 times in 312 days. In 1918, on returning to Britain, her book of the tour Women and War Work was published
In 1918, when women gained the right to stand as parliamentary candidates, she turned her attention to the campaign to elect women as members of parliament. She spoke in Cardiff on behalf of the Joint Committee for Getting Women into Parliament. She did not contest the 1918 General Election. She took an active role in the affairs of a number of organisations; She was a member of the Executive Committee, of the NUWSS successor organisation the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship, she was a member of the Common Interests Committee of the English-Speaking Union, she was involved in the Reunion of British War Missions in USA, she was a member of the Council for the Representation of Women in the League of Nations and she was a Member of the British Institute of International Affairs.
​Her efforts during the war and after had come to the attention of Prime Minister David Lloyd George and she joined his National Liberal organisation. In 1922 she was the first woman to be adopted in Scotland as an official prospective parliamentary candidate when she was selected as National Liberal candidate for the Govan Division of Glasgow for the 1922 General Election. She was one of only three women candidates (all Liberals) to contest the general election in Scotland. Govan was a safe Labour seat and she was not expected to win. Fraser was a prominent member of the Glasgow and West of Scotland Suffrage Society (GWSS). She had the GWSS backing to stand in Govan on the platform of the Liberal manifesto. This platform included the establishment of widow's pensions and an equal franchise for women. During her campaign she criticised her male Labour party opponent's "appropriation of our feminist ideals and policies."

In 1923 she went to Paris, France to attend the conference of the International Alliance of Women for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship as a delegate of the NUWSS. Later in 1923, following re-union between Lloyd George and Asquith, she switched constituencies to stand as Liberal party candidate for the Hamilton Division of Lanarkshire at the 1923 General Election. Though also a Labour seat, it was believed that her prospects here were a little better. However, abuse and calumny by the Labour Party candidate Duncan Macgregor Graham made the experience a thoroughly unpleasant one.
Her last political invitation was to fight the Glasgow Kelvingrove by-election, 1924 but the Conservative candidate Walter Elliot was a friend, and she knew that she could poll enough votes to cause him to lose the seat, so she refused and gave up the idea of a career in politics. Helen then moved to London, earning money from freelance articles on women's issues. She was elected to Kensington Borough Council sitting as a member for seven years.
While living in London, Fraser was in contact with an old friend named James Moyes who had emigrated to Australia. His wife had died, and he asked Fraser to marry him several times before she accepted. She emigrated to Sydney in 1938 or 1939. Late in her life she wrote an autobiography, entitled A Woman in a Man's World, that was published in 1971.

Sir Malcolm Fraser KCMG (1834 - 1900)

​Sir Malcolm Fraser KCMG (1834–17 August 1900) was Surveyor-General in colonial Western Australia from 1872 to 1883 and Agent-General for the colony 1892 to 1898.
Malcolm Fraser was born in Gloucestershire, England in 1834. Nothing is known of his early life, except that he must have qualified as a surveyor at some stage, and that he emigrated to New Zealand. From 1857 to 1859, Fraser worked as a surveyor in Auckland. He was then district surveyor for the Native Land Purchase Department until 1863; district surveyor for the Canterbury West Gold Fields until 1867; and finally Chief Surveyor for Westland until 1869.
In 1870, Fraser emigrated to Western Australia to take up the position of that colony's Surveyor-General, which had become vacant on the retirement of John Septimus Roe. Fraser was recruited to the position by then Governor of Western Australia Frederick Weld, who had formerly been Premier of New Zealand and knew Fraser personally from that time. Fraser commenced as surveyor-general on 19 December 1870. In May 1871 he completely reorganised the Lands and Surveys Department, which resulted in the promotion of John Forrest and the dismissal of Alexander Forrest.
As surveyor-general, Fraser immediately became a nominated member of Western Australia's Legislative and Executive Councils. He remained surveyor-general until 5 January 1883, when he was appointed to succeed Edric Gifford as Colonial Secretary of Western Australia. Later that year, Fraser represented Western Australia at the Australasian Convention in Sydney. From June 1886 to June 1887, he was on leave in England, and while there he represented Western Australia at the Colonial and Imperial Exhibition in London. In 1888, he represented the state at the Intercolonial Conference in Sydney.
After Frederick Broome's tenure as Governor came to an end in December 1889, Fraser was appointed Administrator of Western Australia until the appointment of the next governor. William Robinson was appointed Governor in October 1890, and one of his first tasks was to institute responsible government. Under responsible government, the Executive Council was dissolved, and the office of Colonial Secretary became a ministerial portfolio. Rather than contest a parliamentary seat, Fraser decided to retire on his pension. He retired on 28 December 1890, and shortly afterwards set sail for London. In April 1892 he came out of retirement to accept the position of the first Agent General for Western Australia in London, which position he held until 1898.

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Malcolm Fraser died at Clifton on 17 August 1900. He was survived by his three sons and two daughters. His wife since 1861, Elizabeth née Riddiford, had died four years earlier. Fraser was made CMG in 1881 and KCMG in 1897. Throughout his life Fraser had a reputation for his bad temper; Crowley (2000) referred to him as a man whose intemperate habits had been town gossip for years.
In 1881, the Victorian government botanist, Ferdinand von Mueller named Eremophila fraseri in his honour.
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Beaufort Castle​​
Beaufort Castle (Scottish Gaelic: Caisteal Duuaidh) is located near Beauly in Inverness-shire, northern Scotland. It is 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Kiltarlity, and 12 miles (19 km) west of Inverness. The present castle is a Baronial style mansion built in 1880, but incorporates older building work. There has been a castle on the site since the 12th century. Beaufort is the traditional seat of the Lords Lovat.




The earliest mention of the site, as Downie or Dounie Castle, occurs in the reign of Alexander I (1106–1124), when a siege took place. The original castle was built by the Byset family. The castle came into the hands of the Frasers in the late 13th century. English forces besieged the castle in 1303. In the 1650s Dounie was attacked and burned by the forces of Oliver Cromwell during their invasion of Scotland. 
The Fraser estates were inherited by Simon Fraser, 11thLord Lovat (c.1667–1747), in 1699. Known as 'The Fox', Lovat became deeply involved in the Jacobite cause, which aimed to restore the deposed House of Stuart to the 
thrones of Scotland and England. Exiled to France, Lovat joined James Stuart, the Old Pretender, and converted to Catholicism. He attempted to recruit Scottish nobles to the cause, carrying messages to Scotland, but his dealings led to ten years imprisonment in France. 
Returning in 1714, he apparently renounced the Jacobite cause in return for possession of his estates. In the 1740s he commissioned William Adam to design a new house at Dounie. Adam’s last work, the project only progressed to the supply of stonework to the site: construction never started since the Jacobite Rising of 1745 intervened. Lovat, changing allegiance again, supported the Jacobites, but was captured and executed after the Battle of Culloden. Dounie Castle was razed by the Duke of Cumberland, and the estate was declared forfeit. From 1746 the estate was run by the Forfeited Estates Commissioners, appointed by Parliament to dispose of confiscated estates, and a small house was built on the site of the demolished castle to house the factor (estate manager). In 1774 the estate was returned to Lovat’s son, Simon Fraser of Lovat (1726–1782), who had raised and commanded the 78th Fraser Highlanders for the British Army. Proposals for a new house on the site were put forward in 1777 but not executed. In 1815 the estate was inherited by Thomas Fraser of Strichen (1802–1875), who was reinstated to the Lordship of Lovat in 1854. In 1839 he commissioned William Burn to extend the house, and also improved the grounds and estate. His son Simon Fraser, 13th Lord Lovat (1828–1887), built the present Beaufort Castle, to designs by James Maitlan Wardrop, incorporating part of the 18th-century house. The castle was sold in 1994 to Stagecoach director Ann Gloag by the 15th Lord Lovat, to meet inheritance taxes.




Thomas Fraser 10th Lord Lovat

Thomas Fraser, 10th Lord Lovat (1631–1699), was a younger son of Hugh, 6th Lord Lovat (1591–1646), hereditary chief of the Clan Fraser. He was known as Thomas of Beaufort, which marked him as the belonging to the second line of the family tree after the chiefly family, the Lovats.
As an eighteen year old, he led 1000 Fraser men in support of the deposed Stuarts in a battle with Oliver Cromwell’s army in 1651 at the Battle of Worcester. Losing, he was kept in jail at Inverness for several years.
Eventually released, he married Sybilla McLeod, the daughter of John McLeod, chief of the Clan McLeod. They had fourteen children together, although nine died in childhood. The eldest son, Alexander (1664 -1689), died of wounds while leading Frasers in support of the deposed Stuart King James II forces at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
Described as thoughtful and scholarly, he became the 10th Lord Lovat in 1696 following the death of his cousin Hugh, 9th Lord Lovat, whose only infant son had predeceased him in the same year. Thomas was not able to enjoy his title and estates for long, since he was placed under sentence of death for the reckless behaviour of his son Simon in 1697. This included Simon threatening to hang the son of a noble, and his forced marriage and rape of Hugh’s widow, Amelia Murray. As a result, both Thomas and his son were forced to flee the ancestral home of the Lovat Frasers, Dounie Castle, and take refuge in the highlands.
Thomas died at Dunvegan Castle on Skye at the age of 69. He was buried there, but his son Simon, who eventually became the 11th Lord Lovat, made amends for his father's exile by placing a large memorial stone for him at Wardlaw Mausoleum, near Beauly.

Jim Fraser (8th February 1908 - 1st April 1970)

James Reay (Jim) Fraser (8 February 1908 – 1 April 1970) was a Member of the Australian House of Representatives for the Australian Capital Territory from 1951 to 1970.
Fraser was born in Derby, Tasmania and educated at Launceston High School. He worked as a chainman and axeman and as a teacher in Victorian state schools from 1927 to 1935. He then worked as a journalist until he enlisted in the Second Australian Imperial Force in 1942 and served in New Guinea until 1945. From 1946 to 1948 he worked as a journalist in the Department of Information in Canberra and then as press secretary and private secretary to Senator Nick McKenna until 1951.[1
Fraser became a member of the Australian Capital Territory Advisory Council in 1949 and defeated Lewis Nott for the House of Representatives seat of the Australian Capital Territory in the 1951 election. He did not have full voting rights until 1966; until then he could only vote on matters relating to the territory. He put in time and energy looking after the interests of his constituents. In 1959, he married Helen Whitten Rowland. He died of cancer in 1970, survived by his only son Andrew; his wife died in March 2012.[1]
His brother, Allan Fraser, was MP for the adjoining seat of Eden-Monaro from 1943 to 1966 and from 1969 to 1972.
The Division of Fraser and the suburb of Fraser, Australian Capital Territory, both in Canberra, were named after him.

Moyra Fraser (3rd December 1923 - 13th December 2009)

Moyra Fraser (3 December 1923 – 13 December 2009) was an Australian-born English actress and ballet dancer, who is best known for playing Penny Johnson in the long-running sitcom As Time Goes By. Her sister was the actress Shelagh Fraser. She married author Douglas Sutherland, with whom she had a daughter, and Old Etonian Roger Lubbock, by whom she had two sons.
Moyra Fraser was born in Sydney, Australia, on 3 December 1923 and with her family emigrated to the United Kingdom in June 1924. Her father was a director of Mappin & Webb. She left school at 14 to take up a scholarship with Sadler's Wells Ballet, where she was befriended by Robert Helpmann.
Fraser joined the Sadler's Wells Ballet after training, dancing the title role in Giselle, the Lilac Fairy in The Sleeping Princess and creating the role of Hope in The Quest (Ashton/Walton after Spenser). She left the company to play the principal role in Song of Norway at the Palace Theatre, London. Following that Fraser appeared as Venus in The Olympians at Covent Garden, and starred in many plays and pantomimes. These included Girl in the Window and the musical romance Golden City; she was in the revue Airs on a Shoestring at the Royal Court Theatre from 1953 to 1955. The Country Wife followed at the same theatre. She was part of the Old Vic Company in 1959-60, appearing in As You Like It, The Double Dealer and The Merry Wives of Windsor.
In the 1960s and 1970s she was seen in Through the Looking Glass at the Lyric, Hammersmith, the revue See You Inside, The Buxom Muse, Ring Round the Moon at the Haymarket Theatre in 1968, and for four years was in No Sex Please, We're British.
Fraser's first film role was in the 1948 musical The Dancing Years, and two years later she appeared in the David Lean film Madeleine. In 1967 she appeared in the film Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and in 1971 starred in The Boy Friend. Fraser's television career started in the 1960s, and she appeared on The Benny Hill Show, ITV Playhouse and an episode of Comedy Playhouse in 1973. Between 1975 and 1977 she appeared in four episodes of the BBC Television series The Good Life as Felicity, the wife of Jerry's boss, Andrew.
From 1985 to 1986, Fraser played Annie Jolly in From the Top appearing in a total of 12 episodes. She first played Penny, the sister of Jean's first husband, in 1993, on As Time Goes By. She continued with the part until the programme's final episode in 2005. During the show's run, Fraser appeared in other programmes including Rumpole of the Bailey and Jeeves and Wooster.

Fraser Fir 

YThe Fraser fir, Abies fraseri, is a species of fir native to the Appalachian Mountains of the Southeastern United States.
Abies fraseri is closely related to balsam fir (Abies balsamea), of which it has occasionally been treated as a subspecies (as A. balsamea subsp. fraseri (Pursh) E.Murray) or a variety (as A. balsamea var. fraseri (Pursh) Spach).
The species Abies fraseri is named after the Scottish botanist John Fraser (1750–1811), who made numerous botanical collections in the region. It is sometimes misspelled "Frasier," "Frazer" or "Frazier."
In the past, it was also sometimes known as "she-balsam" because resin could be "milked" from its bark blisters, in contrast to the "he balsam" (red spruce) which could not be milked. It has also occasionally been called balsam fir, inviting confusion with A. balsamea.


Abies fraseri is a small evergreen coniferous tree typically growing between 30 and 50 feet (10–15 m) tall, but rarely to 80 ft (25 m), with a trunk diameter of 16 to 20 inches (40–50 cm), but rarely 30 in (75 cm). The crown is conical, with straight branches either horizontal or angled upward at 40° from the trunk; it is dense when the tree is young and more open in maturity. The bark is thin, smooth, grayish brown, and has numerous resinous blisters on juvenile trees, becoming fissured and scaly in maturity.
The leaves are needle-like; arranged spirally on the twigs but twisted at their bases to form 2 rows on each twig; they are 0.4-0.9 inches (10–23 mm) long and 79-87 mil (2–2.2 mm) broad; flat; flexible; rounded or slightly notched at their apices (tips); dark to glaucous green adaxially (above); often having a small patch of stomata near their apices; and having 2 silvery white stomatal bands abaxially (on their undersides). Their strong fragrance resembles turpentine.
The cones are erect; cylindrical; 1.4 to 2.75 inches (3.5–7 cm) long, rarely 3.2 in (8 cm), and 1-1.2 inches (2.5–3 cm) broad, rarely 1.5 in (4 cm) broad; dark purple, turning pale brown when mature; often resinous; and with long reflexed green, yellow, or pale purple bract scales. The cones disintegrate when mature at 4-6 months old to release the winged seeds.
Some botanists regard the variety of Balsam fir named Abies balsamea var. phanerolepis as a natural hybrid with Fraser fir, denominated Abies × phanerolepis (Fernald) Liu.
Although not important as a source of timber, Fraser fir is widely used as a Christmas tree. Its mild fragrance, shape, strong limbs, and ability to retain its soft needles (which do not prick easily when hanging ornaments) for a long time when cut make it one of the best trees for this purpose. Fraser fir has been used more times as the White House Christmas tree (the official Christmas tree of the President of the United States's White House) than any other tree.
It is grown in plantations in Scotland and sold by the thousands throughout the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is also cultivated from seedlings in several northern states in the USA and adjacent parts of Quebec province, especially for the Christmas tree trade.
The combination of form, needle retention, dark blue-green color, pleasant scent and excellent shipping characteristics has led to Fraser fir being a most popular Christmas tree species. Growing and harvesting this species for Christmas trees and boughs is a multimillion-dollar business in the southern Appalachians. North Carolina produces the majority of Fraser fir Christmas trees. It requires from 7 to 10 years in the field to produce a 6–7 feet tree. In 2005, the North Carolina General Assembly passed legislation making the Fraser fir the official Christmas tree of North Carolina.